中国的经济安全只有放到世界格局中才能得到充分理解。最一般地讲, 世界格局是指, 世界上各国或国家集团在合作与竞争中、在实力上和利益上达到的某种相对稳定的状态或均衡。在这样的状态下, 任何试图改变现有均衡的努力都是得不偿失的。对世界格局的理解可以有几种不同的角度, 比如可以从历史或动态的角度看, 也就是力求回答“世界格局何以至此又将去向何方”, 人们常说的“时代问题”就与此密切相关。我们亦可以从时代的横断面或静态的角度观察, 即透过马克思所说的生产力、生产关系和上层建筑三个层面, 或汤因比所用的器物、制度、观念三个层面, 来对现今的世界加以描述。我们也可以用成本收益方法, 即通过比较各国家、法语竞博JBOapp苹果版下载或国家集团, 也可以将其统称为各种力量, 在既定或未来格局下的获益和受损程度, 来理解和把握世界格局脉络。我们还可以从世界主要力量的国际地位或影响力的此消彼涨中, 从其构造世界秩序的理念和意志力中, 来对世界格局进行分析。换个角度看, 世界格局的决定因素, 在于各种力量在形形色色国际规则的制定与实施过程中的综合实力。一国或国家集团的综合实力主要取决于以下六个要素: 市场规模, 包括总产出与人均产出水平, 以及相应的购买力; 货币与金融, 主要看其货币是否是世界储备货币, 以及其银行系统和金融市场的稳定性、有效性和规模; 科技水平与创新能力, 其中既要看存量更要看增量; 国土、以质和量表示的人口、与资源禀赋; 制度的稳定性以及与治理合法性密切相关的意识形态, 也就是通常所说的“软力量”; 军事力量。多维度并重、动静态结合、损益量比较、内外因兼顾, 应成为思考世界格局这一宏大问题的基本脉络韩语竞博JBOapp苹果版下载。
China’s economic security can be fully understood only in the world pattern. Most generally speaking, the world pattern refers to certain relatively stable state or equilibrium achieved in strengths and interests among different countries or country blocs in the world in their cooperation and competition. In this state, any effort to attempt to change the current equilibrium will be not worth the candle. The world pattern can be understood from several different angles, for example, it can viewed from the historical or dynamical angle, which is to try to answer “how the world pattern has become as it is and where it will go.” The “epoch problems” that people often talk about are closely related to this. We can also observe it from the epoch transect or static angle, i.e. through Marx’s three levels of productivity, production relations and superstructure; or we can describe the current world through Toynbee’s three levels of implement, system and concept. We can also use the cost-benefit method, i.e. by comparing the gains and losses of different countries and country blocs (which can also be called various forces) in the established or future pattern to understand and grasp the skeleton of the world pattern. We can also analyze the world pattern from the constantly changing international status or influence of the main forces in the world and from their concept and volition of constructing the world order. Viewed from another angle, the decisive factors of the world pattern lie in the comprehensive strengths of various forces in the formulation and implementation of various kinds of international rules. The comprehensive strengths of a country or country bloc mainly depend on the following six factors: market scale, including the levels of total output and per capita output and the relevant purchasing power; currency and finance, mainly depending on whether their currencies are world reserve currencies and the stability, effectiveness and scale of their banking system and financial market; technology level and innovation capability, depending on their inventory and all the more their increase; endowment of land, population presented in quality and quantity, and resources; institutional stability and the ideology closely related to the governance legalization, that is, the “soft force” called in general; and military force. Equal emphasis on multiple dimensions, dynamic and static combination, comparison of gains and losses and attention to both internal and external factors should become the basic skeleton in considering the grand issue of the world pattern.